The feature arrived as part of Windows 10 Insider Build 20226 for the Dev Channel, Microsoft's laboratory for future features.
The Dev Channel is truly experimental, meaning that this feature might not arrive in the final version, but there is no reason why not. It is pretty straightforward.
An aftermarket SSD may ship with utility software that monitors an NVMe SSD drive's health, but Windows itself does not monitor the drive. In this test feature, Windows 10 will add NVMe SSD drives to its monitoring processes, and let you know if it's about to fail.
If you then go into the Windows 10 Settings menu for Storage, you'll see that the SSD drive in question is listed as unreliable. In that case you're advised to back up everything.